As the moon moves around Earth in its monthly orbit, there are four points at which it is in exact geometry with the sun and Earth: new moon, first quarter, full moon, and last quarter.
These are the four points at which the Earth, moon and sun are in a straight line, or the sun and moon form a 90-degree angle as seen from Earth.
At new moon, the moon is between Earth and sun, so we are trying to see the moon’s dark side in front of the brilliant sun. We can never see the moon at new moon because of the bright sunlight, except on the rare instances when the moon is directly in front of the sun and we get a solar eclipse. Because of the tilt of the moon’s orbit, most of the time it passes either above or below the sun, but still close enough that it is lost in the sun’s glare. [Moon Photography Tips from Astrophotographers: A Visual Guide]